Welcome to anyone who has found their way to our blog after seeing the site on Digging for Britain. As you will have seen from the television, we had a spectacular year at Binchester and have uncovered fantastic remains from the Roman fort and civilian settlement.
As with many large-scale research excavations we are not in the field over the winter. However, we are already making plans for our final season's work at the site this summer. We'll be back out on site at the beginning of June, when we'll be updating our blog everyday, and continuing our first baby steps with video diaries.
Happy Christmas from all of us at the Binchester project. We have had a fantastic year in 2014. In the field our highlights have included revealing more of the incredibly well-preserved Roman bath-house and its associated remains. We now have on of the best surviving Roman buildings from the Northern frontier. We also had wonderful finds, including an extremely exciting early Christian ring, which is rare example of evidence of early Christianity from Northern England. Plans are well underway for our final season of excavation in the summer of 2015.
I'd also like to extend a special thanks to all those who signed our petition earlier this year to help secure the future of the site. We were overwhelmed with the support we received from across the world. Your enthusiasm did the job, and the site was sold to the Auckland Castle Trust. This will help ensure the site has a long-term future, and we look forward to working with the Trust on their future plans for Vinovia.
CONCERNS have been raised that the site of a Roman
settlement dubbed the Pompeii of the North could be sold to
just outside Bishop
County Durham, has some of Britain's best-preserved Roman remains,
including a bath house with seven-foot walls and painted plaster.
Last year a statue head, possibly of a Geordie Roman
god, was found by an archaeology student helping with the major
excavation works that are being carried out.
The land where the settlement has stood for around 1,800
years is owned by the Church Commissioners. They are selling
ten plots around Bishop Auckland, including two adjoining ones
which cover the Binchester site.
The Auckland Castle Trust, financed by city
philanthropist Jonathan Ruffer and which is aiming to reinvigorate
the local area with tourism by tapping into its heritage, has made a
£2 million bid for the plots.
the Roman settlement itself could not be developed, an old hall on
one of the plots could be, affecting access to the site. Selling the
plots off separately could also hamper archaeologists' w
Mr Ruffer, chairman of the trust, said the £2 million
bid was ten per cent higher than their own valuation of the
"We have done this because there is no one else in
a position to do it and Binchester must be secured by someone who has
a heart for Bishop Auckland and a deep understanding of the site's
importance in a national and international context," he said.
The trust has called for the public to back its bid by
writing to the Church Commissioners.
David Ronn, chief executive of the Auckland Castle
Trust, said: "We need to save the best of Bishop Auckland's,
County Durham's, the North-East's and indeed the UK's past to take
into the future."
David Petts, lecturer in archaeology at Durham University who has
been project co-ordinator on the Binchester excavation, said:
"Binchester is one of the best preserved Roman archaeological
sites in Britain and deserves to be protected for future generations
Only a small percentage of the settlement, which
surrounded a fort on the road north to Hadrian's Wall, has been
revealed so far.
Friday was the final day of our 2014 season of excavation at
Binchester. We’ve been out excavating for seven weeks now, and although I know
I always say this, it’s been our best season yet. Blessed by splendid weather, we’ve been able
to really get stuck in to the archaeology on site, and have revealed stunning
structures, amazing finds, and complex stratigraphy.
This is a good point at which to look back on our progress
over the last couple of months.
In Trench 1, we knew we had traces of a large cavalry
barrack that was at some point (probably in the 4th century AD)
reduced in size to the width of a single room. At the northern end of this
layer phase was a discrete officer’s quarters containing accommodation and a
stable area. However, beyond this we had little sense of the detailed
arrangement and organisation of either period of the barrack block’s use. It is
now clear that the earlier phase conforms to the standard layout of auxiliary
cavalry barrack of Roman date. We have uncovered a series of drains for horse
pee, of varying dimensions and depths, which are more or less evenly spaces
along the length of the building. This matches up nicely with the surviving
hearths and paved pathways which are related to the contubernia (the soldiers’
rooms). We’ve also started to unpick lots of detailed features within the main
structure including lots of stone lined post-holes and post pads; we will need
to look at these closely in plan to see if they relate to putative internal
wall divisions. Other nice internal features include a splendid set of gullies
and carved stone drains in the officer’s quarters. We also recovered another
votive baby burial tucked up against a wall foundation. In general, we have a
much better insight into the varying nature of the walls of the structure. It
is clear that many of the walls were rebuilt on, and the fabric varies widely.
In one area, we may even have a stretch which was only ever a timber wall line.
This varying is not unsurprising on late Roman barracks. We’ve also started to realise the complexity of the
constructional sequence at the northern end of the barrack. In the latest
phase, the gable end abutted a stone-lined drainage gully. It is now clear
though, that at an earlier phase, the line of the gable wall was actually about
2m to the south, and an earlier, cruder, stone gully was in place. The movement
north of the northern wall led to a substantial reconstruction of the gully and
its integration with the new wall line.
There was other progress in this trench beyond the barrack
itself. Notably we picked up the curtain wall in both ramparts, as well as
revealing the corner tower to its fullest extent. Interestingly, there was a
clear difference in the construction of the eastern rampart, which must have
dated to the earliest phase of the fort and had cruder stone fabric and large
internal turf bank. The northern rampart wall was of far finer quality and lay
much closer to the internal fort road. These distinctions between the walls
probably reflect a chronological distinction in their construction.
We did relatively little work on the latrine, beyond finishing off the
excavation of the bottom of the trench which revealed a stone lined base
slanted to allow the sewage to drain into the conduit. The final major new
discovery came to the west of the northern section of the barrack, where a number
of new walls, were found. These are still not easy to understand and appear to
be quite early, but do not look like barrack walls so far.
In Trench 2, the focus was not surprisingly on the
bath-house. We fully cleared out the main room, which produced evidence that,
in its earliest phase, the northern part of the room had contained a cold
plunge pool. This had then been knocked out and the whole room lined with stone
benches, marking a change of use from bath to changing room. The altars found at the end of last season
clearly belonged to this later phase, and were seemingly located in a small
niche in the corner of the room. There
were a couple of other changes that can probably be connected to this change in
function. The painted wall plaster of the bath phase was covered over with a
thick white undecorated plaster. The circulation of space also changed
significantly – several doors were blocked when the benches were put in, and
more importantly in the north-east corner of the room, a new wall was put in
place appears to have blocked off access to the area to the north. Towards the
end of the dig, the area to the north of this wall was found to contain a lined
bath or cistern with the remains of arch springers projecting over it. The
northern half of the corridor had been cleared out last year, but this year we
explored the southern half. The western annexe/alcove at the south end of this
corridor was lined with opus signinum, but otherwise clear. However, the
eastern annexe/alcove contained an wonderfully preserved small plunge bath,
also lined with op sig. This suggests that something similar once stood in the opposite
alcove. The eastern plunge bath had a “plug hole” at the bottom which appears
to have debouched into a gulley that ran beneath the floor of the corridor. We
still have to remove some of the late Roman refuse deposits filling part of the
corridor including a roughly paved and kerbed stone path than clearly ran to
the doorway in the central cross wall. To the east of the trench we also pulled
our trench edges out a little to reveal that the main front wall of the
bath-house continued easterly, with at least one more splayed window
identifiable. We also have enough of the plan of the area to the east of the
corridor to suggest that there may have been another large room, symmetrical to the one we’ve cleared out. Initial work
suggests that this contains well preserved plasterwork.
Although there has been clearly very important work in the
bath-house, further excavation in the exterior of the building has helped us
understand its preservation. This was most apparent in the discovery of the top
of a very well built north-south wall between the bath and the strip buildings.
When we excavated a pit that was dug up against it, we found that this wall was
at least eight courses deep. This is the first indicator of the sheer extent of
the rise of the street level during the Roman period. I’d always assumed the
bath-house was so well preserved because it was partially terraced into the
hillside. However, it is now clear that it was probably free standing in its
earlier stage but got encased internally and externally by rising stratigraphy
and big dumps of refuse, essentially protecting it from collapse.
Elsewhere in the
trench, we removed two buildings (the ones in front of the bath house) and
found another one (a late strip building that partially overlay the new
well-built north-south wall). It is clear that these must all be pretty late in
date- probably later 4th century or even early 5th century AD, as
they lie so high in the stratigraphy. There is also amazing variation in the
construction techniques used in these buildings. One of the strip buildings we excavated
in previous years had internal/external facing stones and was probably stone
built. But the others were all various form of wooden structures with stone
footings. These may either have acted as post-pads or supported beams. It is
not clear whether this is a chronological issue.
Finally, it is worth saying something about the finds. We’ve
continued to find massive quantities of later Roman pottery , although the
increasing presence of terra sigillata is a good indication that we are hitting
earlier layers. There is also massive amounts of animal bone- mostly cattle,
but with pigs, chickens and sheep/goats present as well. Small finds are
plentiful – increasing numbers of well preserved brooches and mounts, some with
good quality enamel decoration. Inevitably, there are many, many pins- some
copper alloy, but also fine examples of jet and worked bone ones. However,
because the site is so well drained we have no waterlogged deposits, so we have
virtually no surviving organic material such as wood or leather.
Finally, of course, the highlight in terms of finds is the
silver ring with the carnelian intaglio, which bears an early Christian symbol
from Trench 1. This is one of the earliest Christian objects from Britain- the other
being a very similar ring from York. It is intriguing that the earliest evidence
for the Church is from the north of England and from clearly military contexts!
As usual there are lots of people to thank- Matt Claydon and
Jamie Armstrong, our trench supervisors, Becca, Natalie, Tricia, Beverley,
Janet and Tudor, our assistant supervisors. Peter Carne from Archaeological
Services Durham University, David Mason from Durham County Council, Chris and
Chris, the visitor assistants, as well as, of course, all our excavators,
including groups from Durham University, Texas Tech, the Archaeological and
Architectural Society of Durham and Northumberland folk, Vinovia and Fulbright summer school crew, a
small group from University of Highlands and Island, and many many others. We’ll
all be back on site next year for our FINAL year at Binchester…
Nearly at the end of the season- but still a busy day. First of all , a visit by Iain Ferris, who excavated the commander's house and bath-house in the 1980s/90s. Lots of useful feedback and discussion- always useful to have him come and visit. We then spent much of the morning with a press call related to our press release earlier this week. I spent a lot of time gurning to camera and perfecting my catwalk poses.
Nonetheless, the work still continues and amid the planning and drawing new discoveries are being made. Most of the interesting developments today were in Trench 1. Here, we've been looking at the northern gable end of the narrow barrack block, where it meets the gully. It has been becoming increasingly clear that the very northern end of this building was extended by a couple of feet at some point. By dismantling the latest gulley which seemed to incorporate the gable wall, it is now clear that there was an earlier gully that we rebuilt when the building was extended northwards.
Elsewhere, yet more post-holes and post-pads continue to appear. We have also found traces of a nice metalled floor surface that seems to extend across nearly the entire width of the building. Nicest find to day was a splendid stone lamp found by Tracey. This has gone back to the labs to be emptied because it appears to have some original contents within it.
Warm day- main focus of activity was our annual visit by our good friend Adam Stanford from Aerial-Cam, who provides our wonderful vertical and aerial shots. This year, he delivered the usual cracking range of shots and also carried out some serious photographic recording on the bath-house. All very pleasing and we'll share the results when we have them.
In the meantime, the images today are from our volunteer Tony Metcalfe (thanks Tony!!)
This blog will share information about the major new field project at the Roman fort of Binchester (Co. Durham), run jointly by Durham County Council, the Dept. of Archaeology, Durham University, Vinovia.org, Texas Tech University and the Architectural and Archaeological Society of Durham and Northumberland. It will communicate news, events, and once the field season starts a daily update of the discoveries on site. To find out more visit our website